September 29, 2015

Dr. Ivan Cikl (RIP) and Radio Free Europe

Dr. Ivan Cikl died in Munich on September 17, 2015.  Below is an unedited google translation of his very interesting life, with a link to the original Slovak language obituary:

Editor, journalist, university lecturer and moderator Dr. Ivan Cikl was born in Ruzomberok (to be given also in Likavka near Ruzomberok) on September 10, 1929. He graduated high school in Ružomberská in 1947. Studies of Economics in Prague, he graduated in. In 1953 and received his engineer. Later he studied at Charles University in Prague, where he completed the Faculty of Law (postgraduate studies in International Law and Relations - topped doctor).
While studying in Prague in. 1953-58 worked as an editor in Czechoslovak Radio, and later as an editor in foreign trade ARTIA. Finally, he was employed as an editor of the Czechoslovak Television Prague (1960-68). In 1967 and during the "Prague Spring 1968" he became deputy editor of TV news. Then it was the updating and modernization of content and form of television news programs. He prepared and performed the test using a new foreign evening "news commenting," which began to restrict so-called political control. Central Administration print supervision.
The Soviet invasion interrupted the promising development of Czechoslovakia, Dr.Cikl was on vacation outside the country, and in this very complicated situation got an offer to work abroad. First it was the Norwegian foreign Institute in Oslo 1968-70 - research publication "The mass media and the Prague Spring in 1968".This was further increased by three months tenure Swedish Radio in Stockholm.
V r. 1970-77 he worked at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.Lectures and seminars, for example. Central and East European regimes - comparative studies; democratic traditions and dictatorship; mass media and political changes in Czechoslovakia. He has published articles and discussions in the mass media. Hong Kong University had one semester of lectures and seminars.Similarly, he worked in research and led seminars in Tai Pei Foreign Affairs Institute at Taivane.
In 1978-95 he worked for Radio Free Europe (RFE) / Radio Liberty, Munich (also known as Radio Free Europe). Commenting foreign and domestic events, doing reportage. For journeys in Polynesia he aired his long radio series. In 1989, he became assistant director of Czechoslovak broadcasting, and a year later co-directors of the program with special focus on Slovak problems. In January 1993, in connection with the political changes after more than 42 years of radio services, such activity was divided into two separate units, the Czech and Slovak broadcasts.Dr. Cikl became the first and also the last director of the Slovak broadcasting Free Europe from Munich. Two years of work were reduced RFE translated to Prague, and then canceled.
Dr. Cikl is a longtime member of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences (SVU) based in USA. He was the founder and chairman of SVU in New Zealand, co-founder (more precisely, updatable) and long-term chairman of SVU - Germany.
Since inception (2011) was a member of the Literary Club in Ruzomberok writers. He was a prolific writer and author and co-author of several books.
For his work won several awards, among which the missing letter of thanks to President Bill Clinton from r. In 1994 for his contribution to democracy and international journalism. In 2010, he was at home in Ruzomberok, awarded by the Mayor of the town of Ruzomberok.
RA Ružomberský’

For the original Slovak language version,

September 22, 2015

Shouldn't They Hear Both Sides? Advertising for RFE after Public Exposure of CIA Connection

A major turning point in the history of Radio Free Europe (RFE) and Radio Liberty (RL) occurred in February 1967, when articles in the New York Times and Washington Post led to the exposure of the CIA's covert sponsorship of RFE and RL -- perhaps one of Washington least know secrets. Ramparts magazine editors advertised an article about the CIA and its covert connection to various organizations, in particular the National Student Association in a full-page New York Times ad in February. 

Additionally, Ramparts editors mailed out advanced copies of their publication, which the New York Times editors received. Thus the New York Times was able to break the story about the CIA on February 14, 1967. The Washington Post published the story on February 26, 1967, and specifically mentioned Radio Free Europe.

On March 13, 1967, the CBS television network announced that it had suspended its free spot announcements of for Radio Free Europe, because “the advertisements did not make it clear that the organization was an arm of the Central Intelligence Agency.“ This was apparently not with the approval or knowledge of  the president of CBS, Frank Stanton, who happened also to be the chairman of the executive committee of the Radio Free Europe Fund. The next day, the ads resumed on the CBS network.

The 1967 Radio Free Europe Fund campaign, with emphasis on the "younger generation" in Eastern Europe, had the slogan "Shouldn't they hear both sides?“ 

Foote, Cone and Belding, Inc., was the "volunteer agency" of the Advertising Council, which distributed the media advertisements as "public service messages." The "volunteer coordinator" was William R. Farrell, director of marketing services, of the Monsanto Chemical Company. 

One advertisement included the text: "Within ten years, the young people of Communist-ruled countries in Eastern Europe will help change our world, for better or worse. Shouldn't they hear both sides? Support Radio Free Europe." The ads were published in newspapers and magazines "as a public service."

Another print advertisement contained the text:

The young people in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary are making up their minds about the world, right now. Shaping their ideas and ideals. Shouldn't they hear both sides? Shouldn't they hear the truth? The main way for many of these young people in these Communist-ruled countries to hear the truth is through Radio Free Europe--a private non-profit organization set up to broadcast, completely and truthfully, to people who are flooded with Communist views on everything. Your dollars help get the truth through to the young people in Eastern Europe.

In addition to the newspaper, magazine, transport (bus and subway) and radio campaigns, the Advertising Council sponsored one-minute films with the same title: "Shouldn't They Hear Both Sides?": 

The young people in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary.

They are talking, thinking about the world, shaping their ideas and ideals.

Shouldn’t they hear both sides? Shouldn’t they hear the truth?

The main way for many of the young people in these Communist countries to hear the truth is through Radio Free Europe. Without Radio Free Europe, their major source of news could be Communist propaganda. Could be bad news for you.

Shouldn’t they hear both sides?

Radio Free Europe needs your support.

(on the screen)
Give to
Radio Free Europe
Box 1967, Mr. Vernon NY.


Departments of State and Defense, CIA, and RFE, agreed on December 15, 1967 on “surge funding” of Radio Free Europe (and Radio Liberty) through June 1969: continued corporate but not private contributions to the RFE Fund. Afterwards, RFE and the Advertising Council did not solicit contributions from individual Americans in the advertising campaigns but offered to supply information about East Europe and RFE to those who asked for it.

In the next posting, we will see how the Advertising Council and RFE adjusted the media advertisements in 1968 for fund soliciting.

September 16, 2015

Nikita Khrushchev and RFE, Part 3: the American People's Counter-Voice to Communism

During his 1959 visit to the United States, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev told Vice President Richard M. Nixon that American grandchildren would live under Communism. This quote was used in the 1960 Crusade for Freedom fund-raising campaign for Radio Free Europe (RFE).

For the 1961 national fund-raising campaign conducted by the Radio Free Europe Fund (formerly Crusade for Freedom), the Advertising Council (Ad Council) prepared a Magazine Advertisement for RFE, which showed somber school children with raised hands in a classroom: 

“Your grandchildren will grow up under Communism!” says Nikita Khrushchev

Will the Soviet threat come true? Will your grandchildren live under Communism?  Forget God? Salute the Soviet flag?  “Never!” you say. But are you sure? How can you oppose Communism? One way is to help Radio Free Europe.

The voice is that of Nikita Khrushchev.
The audience is American.
“Your children will grow up under Communism!” he shouts.
Will your children live to see the Free World die` Forget God? Salute the Soviet flag?
“Never!” you say. But are you sure?
What can you do to oppose Communism? There is one sure way.
Help Radio Free Europe.
What does it do?
Every day, to 79 million captive people behind the Iron Curtain, it broadcasts news of the outside world.
It helps keep these people from turning to Communism. The Poles, Czechs, Bulgarians, Rumanians and Hungarians.
It keeps alive their friendship for America. 
It reaches over 90% of these people, despite Communist jamming.
Thousands of letters echo the plea: God Bless You! Please keep Radio Free Europe on the air!”
These people are the buffers between Russia and the Free World”
They pose a major obstacle to the Russians starting any war. And Radio Free Europe is their strongest link with the Free World.
But Radio Free Europe depends on individual Americans for its existence.
How about it? 
Will you help`… Give a dollar? … Give five dollars? … Or more?
Surely your heart tells you to give something so that our children -- and all children – shall live in freedom throughout the world.

The American People’s Counter-Voice to Communism.

Mail your contributions to Radio Free Europe Fund, P. O. Box 1961, Mt. Vernon 10, New York.

This is perhaps the first time that the phrase “Counter-Voice to Communism” was used to describe Radio Free Europe.

In its January 1961 issue, Billboard magazine reported that Khrushchev’s “anti-U.S. statements (‘We will bury you’ and ‘Your grandchildren will grow up under communism’) will be stressed as the theme of special radio and TV spots. It is estimated that Khrushchev will make 3 billion radio-TV impressions on the American public – an all-time record.”

Some newspapers carried an additional statement with a small coupon to be filled out: “Here’s how YOU can answer Nikita Khrushchev…just clip and mail this coupon with your contribution—whatever you can afford. Do it now!” The coupon read, “Here’s my contribution of _____ to help you answer lies—to keep truthful news going behind the Iron Curtain.”

One variation of this ad was published in the May 1961 edition of Reader’s Digest with a drawing that showed school children with raised hands in a classroom with the same text. 

Another variation of this advertisement was used in the February 1962 Radio Free Europe Fund national campaign, when newspapers showed a group of smiling newspaperboys with raised hands. The text read: 


Nikita Khrushchev says “YES!"

Your Newspaperboys say “NO!”  

To back up their answer your newspaperboys are collecting funds to support Radio Free Europe the anti-Communist network, which broadcasts news and information to 79 million captive people behind the Iron Curtain In Poland, Hungary. Czechoslovakia, Romania and Bulgaria Your newspaperboys ask you to join RFE in the light against Communism. Free Europe's 28 powerful transmitters and relay stations broadcast almost 3,000 hours a week through the Iron Curtain around East Europe, These RFE broadcasts are the strongest link the captive people have with the truth and the free world. 

Your Truth dollars help fight Communism. One dollar pays for one minute of truth to answer Communist lies and Khrushchev’s boasts. How many minutes will you give? 


In 1964, the Free Europe Committee published a cartoon coloring booklet for newspaperboys, with a caricature of Khrushchev and the sentence, “This is Nikita Khrushchev, dictator of the Soviet Union, color him RED.”

For Radio Free Europe, the booklet drawing read, “This is Radio Free Europe‘s Headquarters. The people who work here help the captive people keep alive their hope for freedom and their national and religious heritage. Color the building ANTI-COMMUNIST.”

Nikita Khrushchev was removed from office in October 1964; he died in 1971.

September 08, 2015

September 8, 1951, An Urgent Call to Action to American Women to Fight Communism

Crusade for Freedom National Chairman General Lucius D. Clay’s Call to Action to American Women 

Radio Appeal September 8, 1951

General Lucius D. Clay gave a radio address that was broadcast by radio station WNBC at 10:15 p.m., September 8, 1951. The New York Times, for example, headlined the speech on September 9, 1951: “CLAY OPENS APPEAL TO AID RED 'SLAVES.” In part, Clay said:

The free people were unwilling to believe in 1945 that aggression was again on the march; that Stalin had replaced Hitler. When they learned this lesson, they rallied.  For two years they have resisted the Soviet attempt to enslave more people, while concurrently slowly but surely rebuilding their own strength and their abilities t maintain freedom in areas where it is threatened. The day approaches when they will aid in the restoration of freedom where it has been lost.

Then when stability comes, as the armed potential of the West has been mobilized to match -- to more than match – Soviet might, demands which cannon be resisted will develop in the satellite countries for free elections, in which Communist rule will be overwhelmingly defeated.

If we truly want a free world, then each and every one of us must be willing to play a part in bringing it about. It is not our way to leave our problems entirely resolved by government. It is our way as a people to join together in doing those things, which we believe worthwhile. The Crusade for Freedom presents the opportunity to each American to take a personal part in the struggle for freedom.

Call to Action to American Women

There was also a nation-wide newspaper coverage of Clay’s appeal, in the best Cold-war rhetoric, to the women in the United States to support the Crusade, an urgent Call to Action:

Last year we accomplished much. With the money contributed to the CRUSADE FOR FREEDOM in 1950 we built a new radio station – the most powerful in Europe. This station of Radio Free Europe broadcasts daily messages of hope and courage to the captive peoples.

Now where do we go from here? The answer is, we go on! We need at least two more Powerful radio transmitters in Europe. We need funds to begin work at once on a Radio Free Asia to halt the spread of Communism in the Far East.

The CRUSADE FOR FREEDOM is our means, as private citizens, of insuring that the voice of liberty will be heard. Radio Free Europe is our personal instrument for adding our voice to the voices of truth penetrating the Iron Curtain.

This struggle (against Communism) reaches into every American home. It involves you and me. It affects the way of life of our children and our grandchildren.

Therefore I call upon the women of America to join in the CRUSADE FOR FREEDOM. I ask you to take this positive action now.

The CRUSADE FOR FREEDOM and Radio Free Europe are one of the
means, one of the powerful weapons that can be brought into play against the forces of tyranny – powerful because through them American citizens can dispel the chill blackness of evil ideas with the clear warmth and light of truth.

By helping to win the battle for men’s minds, we thereby help to keep this cold war from developing into a hot war.

This is the primary reason why it is urgent for every woman in this nation to enroll in the CRUSADE FOR FREEDOM.

September 04, 2015

65 Years Ago, Ike's "hard-hitting" Speech in support of Crusade for Freedom and Radio Free Europe

“Labor Day” in the United States is an annual national holiday that celebrates, on the first Monday of September, “the economic and social contribution of workers.“ Below, we will look at Labor Day 1950  and the Crusade for Freedom in support of Radio Free Europe (RFE).

65 years ago, Labor Day, September 4, 1950, World War II hero Dwight David Eisenhower (“Ike”) passionately called for a Crusade for Freedom in a nation-wide radio broadcast heard over the four major radio networks in the United States (ABC, CBS, NBC and Mutual). The twelve-and-a-half-minute speech also was broadcast on a delayed basis by the Voice of America to an international audience.

Millions of Americans sat before their radios in the evening at 11:15 PM (Eastern Daylight Time), when Eisenhower delivered his prepared speech before an audience of 4,000 at the Denver City Auditorium, Denver, Colorado. Famed opera singer Laurence Melchior provided that evening’s entertainment leading up to the speech.

The next day, Eisenhower’s speech was printed in full, or in excerpts, in newspapers throughout the Untied States. Weekly news magazines Time and Newsweek had been given copies before the radio broadcast so they could include it in the September 4th issues.

This speech has been called "one of the hardest hitting anti-Communist speeches ever given by an American leader." It not only kicked off the Crusade for Freedom campaign in 1950, but also set its tone and provided the base for the decade’s political slogans used in future advertising campaigns to support both the Crusade for Freedom and RFE.

Dwight D. Eisenhower was then president of Columbia University and a director of the National Committee for a Free Europe (NCFE) —the parent organization of RFE. Reportedly, he took four weeks to write the speech, which, in part he said:


Americans are dying in Korea tonight. They are dying for ideals they have been taught to cherish more than life itself; but it will be written and said tonight in Warsaw - in Prague - in Moscow, that they died for American imperialism.

I speak tonight about the Crusade For Freedom. This Crusade is a campaign sponsored by private American citizens to fight the big lie with the big truth. It is a program that has been hailed by President Truman, and others, as an essential step in getting the case for freedom heard by the world's multitudes.

Powerful Communist radio stations incessantly tell the world that we Americans are physically soft and morally corrupt; that we are disunited and confused; that we are selfish and cowardly; that we have nothing to offer the world but imperialism and exploitation.

We need powerful radio stations abroad, operated without government restrictions, to tell in vivid and convincing form about the decency and essential fairness of democracy These stations must tell of our aspirations for peace, our hatred of war, our support of the United Nations and our constant readiness to cooperate with any and all who have these same desires

One such private station Radio Free Europe —is now in operation in Western Germany. It daily brings a message of hope and encouragement to a small part of the European masses.

In this battle for Truth, you and I have a definite part to play during the Crusade. Each of us will have the opportunity to sign the Freedom Scroll It bears a declaration of our faith in Freedom, and of our belief in the dignity of the individual who derives the right of Freedom from God. Each of us, by signing the Scroll, pledges to resist aggression and tyranny wherever they appear on the earth. Its words express what is in all our hearts. Your signature on it will be a blow for liberty.

My friend General Lucius Clay – one of our great Americans – is directing the Crusade for Freedom.  Your contribution, great or small, will help him provide the means of bringing the truth to a region vital to our welfare.

The New York Times reported the next day, “Eisenhower Opens War on “The Big Lie.” At the grass roots level, newspapers reacted positively to the Eisenhower’s speech. Here are four examples:

  • The editor of The Anniston Star, Anniston, Alabama, wrote on September 7, 1950: “Here in Alabama the campaign is getting underway with enthusiasm as people find ‘something to do’ with countering Russian propaganda. The average man and woman long have wanted something concrete to do to help in the bitter struggle. The Crusade for Freedom is the answer.”
  • In another Alabama newspaper, the editor of The Gadsden Times wrote: “Gathering steam this week for an assault on Communist propaganda is what promises to be one of the greatest public expressions in the search for truth ever perpetrated in this country.” 
  • In Greenville, Mississippi, The Delta Democrat-Times editor wrote on September 6, 1950: “He told of a bold new plan to oppose the Soviet “big lie” with an American “big truth” and he rallied behind him the American people. There is no question but what he said is true...No man who benefits from being an American should refuse to give something to this program.”
  • The Independent Record, Helena, Montana, on September 18, 1950, carried a full-page advertisement for the upcoming Crusade for Freedom rally, with a photo of Eisenhower, the full speech, and headlined: “The Korean Situation is no joke ... the Hour is at hand when Freedom faces its greatest crisis ... Read! Act! Think! if you cherish your country, family and friends.  The Commies are ready; ARE YOU?”

    The full text of Eisenhower’s 1950 speech can be viewed at Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, Eisenhower’s Speeches, Crusade for Freedom, Denver, Colorado, September 4, 1950.

    For an excellent detailed content analysis of the speech, see Martin J. Medhurst, Eisenhower and the Crusade for Freedom: the rhetorical origins of a Cold War campaign, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1997.

    September 02, 2015

    "Bells of Freedom" and "Five Champions of Freedom" open the Second Crusade for Freedom, Sept. 3, 1951

    General Lucius D. Clay
    The second national effort of the Crusade for Freedom in support of Radio Free Europe officially began Labor Day, Monday, September 3, 1951. General Lucius D. Clay remained as the Crusade’s National Chairman and Harold E. Stassen, president of the University of Pennsylvania, was 1951 “Drive Chairman.” 
    Freedom Scroll

    The announced nation-wide goal was $3,500,000 in public contributions and 25 million signatures on the Freedom Scroll. 

    The fund-raising campaign commenced with a nationwide 15 minute radio program "Bells of Freedom" that was carried by the Columbia Broadcasting System CBS) radio network from 5:30 to 5:45 p.m. The radio program featured recorded messages from "Five Champions of Freedom": 

    ·      General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was in Paris, 
    ·      Crusade National Chairman Lucius D. Clay, 
    ·      1951 Crusade Drive Chairman Harold E. Stassen, 
    ·      U.S. Ambassador Walter S. Gifford in London, and 
    ·      Mayor Ernst Reuter in Berlin. 

    During the program five bells could be heard:

    1. Liberty Bell in Philadelphia;
    2. Bell of Notre Dame cathedral in Paris;
    3. Big Ben in London;
    4. World Freedom Bell in Berlin; and
    5. Chong-No bell in Seoul, Korea.
    The bells "strove to emphasize the immemorial yearning for freedom in a world where millions were being denied it."

    General Clay in New York said, in part, "The goal of our 1951 Crusade is the addition of at least two more powerful transmitters to Radio Free Europe ... and that we will also be able to establish a freedom station in Asia to penetrate the Iron Curtain in the Far East". 

    Listen to the full Clay statement here: 


    General Eisenhower said, in part,

    They (citizens of Iron Curtain countries) hunger also for truth, to sustain them under the crushing weight of godless dictatorship. You can help bring them the truth though the Crusade for Freedom. I trust that every American will support wholeheartedly its campaign to use truth as our most powerful weapon against Communistic domination of the world.

    Harold E. Stassen, speaking from Philadelphia, said, "During this month of September, the Crusade for Freedom once again offers every citizen an opportunity to take a personal part in tearing down the Iron Curtain. It offers all of us an opportunity to help truth fight communism throughout the world."

    Ambassador Gifford said, "Community of purpose in ideological warfare was as important as it was in a shooting war."

    Mayor Reuter said that the Freedom Bell "has become a symbol of resistance for our people. Each day at noon it rings out over the city. To those who live in the Soviet zone it means renewed hope and courage."

    The broadcast, narrated by famed television and radio journalist Edward R. Murrow, was also carried by Radio Free Europe. 

    Americans who "enrolled" in the Crusade for Freedom received in return a lapel button with the Freedom Bell symbol with the words Crusade for Freedom and a sticker, "signifying their part in this critical battle against Communism," which could be displayed at home or on automobile windows.

    August 18, 2015

    Romania's August 18, 1980, Action Plan: sowing Murder, Mayhem and Terror against Radio Free Europe and it's staff

    35 years ago today, 18 August 1980, the Romanian Ministry of Interior approved Action Plan Nr. 225/f.9/0025323 against Radio Free Europe and its staff. This Action Plan has the only known direct reference to the planning of the eventual bombing of RFER/RL by Carlos the Jackal six months later. 

    Here are some excerpts:

    ·      Training collaborator Danciu from Romania, electronic engineer, in order to send him abroad. He will infiltrate RFE with the mission to destroy the radio's facilities and buildings. Deadline 15 Feb., 1981.

    ·      Informant Barta Geza's reactivation (Germany), mechanic, who repairs cars for some RFE employees; his mission will be to manipulate the cars so that they may become susceptible to making accidents. Deadline: 31 Dec. 1980.

    ·      By using informants: Riva, Protopopescu, Kraus, Barta Geza and others we will analyze the radio's buildings and facilities, its security system, its vulnerable places in order to find the appropriate means to damage and destroy the buildings and facilities by detonating explosives and committing arson. On the other hand, we will select the persons apt to perform these special actions. By Dec. 31, 1980 we will have tabled the proposals concerning the operation.

    ·      Identification of the employees' homes, examination of possibilities to break into them in order to place containers with explosives, letters and bogus parcels which would cause explosions. For each case there will be a special variant of action. Permanent task. 

    ·      Identification of the garages where RFE employees park their cars or have their cars repaired. The aim: placing explosives or manipulating the cars so that they may cause serious accidents. Permanent task.

    ·      Identification of restaurants and brothels frequented by RFE employees, where we could frame a scandal during which RFE employees may get molested. Permanent task.

    For the full text of this Action Plan, see Appendix B of my book Cold War Radio.

    See my book Securitatea contra Europa Libera for the full Romanian language text of the Action Plan.